The design of letterforms for use as typefaces, and the selection of typefaces for typeset documents. Typefaces are designed and used for a multitude of purposes (eg books, newspapers, stationery, handbills) and for use on various kinds of typesetting equipment, in both print and non-print media (such as film and television). Many typefaces in use today are called after the printers who originally cut them, such as Baskerville and Caslon, although the exact forms may have changed to suit modern typesetting and printing requirements. New typefaces are, however, still being designed: Times New Roman, designed by Stanley Morison in 1932 for the redesigned Times newspaper, has been called the most important type design of the 20th Century , and one of the most eminent typographers is Hermann Zapf, whose designs include the widely used Palatino and Optima. Helvetica, designed for the Haas type foundry in Switzerland, has become one of the most popular sans serif typefaces today. The selection of a typeface by a designer or typographer is based on a number of considerations. It is chosen for its appeal, its appropriateness, and its legibility with reference to the job in hand. Typefaces can vary immensely in their appearance. They can be divided into two major classes: the serif faces, with short cross-strokes at the ends of the letters, and the sans-serif faces, which lack these cross-strokes. Within these classes, typefaces vary in the size of their x-height, the style of the serif, their weight (or ‘blackness’), the angle of the curves, and so on, all of which affect both the appearance of the text on a page and how long the printed document will be.
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